Toffee: Enabling Around-Device Interaction with Acoustic TDOA Correlation
Toffee is a sensing approach that extends touch interaction beyond the small confines of a mobile device and onto ad hoc adjacent surfaces, most notably tabletops. This is achieved using a novel application of acoustic time differences of arrival (TDOA) correlation. Previous time-of-arrival based systems have required semi-permanent instrumentation of the surface and were too large for use in mobile devices. Our approach requires only a hard tabletop and gravity – the latter acoustically couples mobile devices to surfaces. We conducted an evaluation, which shows that Toffee can accurately resolve the bearings of touch events (mean error of 4.3° with a laptop prototype). This enables radial interactions in an area many times larger than a mobile device; for example, virtual buttons that lie above, below and to the left and right.
Research Team: Robert Xiao, Greg Lew, James Marsanico, Divya Hariharan, Scott Hudson, and Chris Harrison
Robert Xiao, Greg Lew, James Marsanico, Divya Hariharan, Scott Hudson, and Chris Harrison. 2014. Toffee: enabling ad hoc, around-device interaction with acoustic time-of-arrival correlation. In Proceedings of the 16th international conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices & services (MobileHCI '14). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 67–76. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1145/2628363.2628383